“The best British football manager ever” – Alf Ramsey

Photograph copyright David Kindred www.kindredspirit.comAlf Ramsey celebrating winning the Championship in 1962. Photograph copyright David Kindred kindred-spirit.co.uk

The World Cup finals are always accompanied by a glut of retrospectives, and it seems inevitable that there will be references to the only man who ever guided England to win that trophy, Sir Alf Ramsey. Unfortunately it’s equally certain that those references will for the most part be clichéd and predictable: Ramsey’s accent, the elocution lessons, his reputation as a private, uncommunicative man with little sense of fun and no ability to relate to others. Worse still, though, it appears that many writers consider his achievements on the football field to be insignificant or that they’ve been overrated in some way. Somehow, it seems, golden boy Bobby Moore won the World Cup all by himself or England won the World Cup despite Alf Ramsey rather than because of him. His achievements in club football  are often overlooked too but I suspect that, for many reasons, he will forever remain the only manager of Ipswich Town ever to achieve the highest award in English football.

Sadly the first two mentions of Sir Alf that I’ve seen in the run-up to Brazil 2014, both by writers I admire very much – Barney Ronay of The Guardian and the incomparable Danny Baker, in Brushing Up on the World Cup, a comedy clips show – resorted to this lazy stereotype. Ronay even failed to mention that Ramsey had won the trophy in 1966, as if it’s some minor detail, while praising Alf’s predecessor as England manager, Walter Winterbottom, who – not to put too fine a point on it – won, appropriately enough, sweet FA.

Researching for a chapter on Sir Alf Ramsey for my book about the history of Ipswich Town FC, I read everything that I could find about the man and also spoke to a number of people who had met or knew him: someone who as a small boy knocked on the door of Alf’s house in Ipswich to ask for his autograph, the woman who was his secretary for his entire time at Ipswich Town, ex-footballers who played for him. Every one spoke of his kindness, courtesy and love of the game.

The contrast between the Alf that they spoke of and the cold, detached and rather unknowable figure depicted in the books and newspaper articles that were written during his lifetime is remarkable. Yet frequently, as well as invariably talking about Ramsey’s shyness, his detachment, the regret that they could never quite get to know him, people also spoke warmly of the respect and love they felt for him – and in several cases they actually used the word love. These were (mostly) men of my father’s generation, men who would rarely, if ever, speak openly about their feelings especially towards other men. One example – and it’s quite typical – is Alan Ball, who was in Ramsey’s England squad for many years, and said: “I loved him to death. He was very, very special in my life.”

Most biographies and articles about Ramsey, however, portray a quite different individual. One in particular, by Max Marquis, is a clear and obvious attempt to destroy the man’s reputation and it was published while Ramsey was still alive. I enjoy a good hatchet job as much as the next woman (see Taylor Parkes on Tim Lovejoy in When Saturday Comes for one of the best) but Marquis seemed to have an agenda to bring Ramsey down. Perhaps it’s just that thing foreigners notice about the British, that we have a need to destroy anyone who is successful, to point out that they have feet of clay. Perhaps it was more personal than that. Whatever, his motivation, it makes painful reading.

Alf Ramsey was born in Dagenham, then a small village, in 1920. When interviewed he said that his family “were not exactly wealthy.” This was a characteristic understatement on Ramsey’s part, and like his much-quoted reply to a question about where his parents lived (“I believe they live in Dagenham.”) is often used as evidence of an almost eccentric desire to hide his origins. I don’t believe that this was an attempt on his part to cover up the poverty of his background or some kind of snobbish dismissal of his folks by a self-made man. Ramsey was a diffident person who disliked speaking to the press, and some of the things that he said may simply have resulted from a desire to protect his family from unwanted intrusion.

There may be more to it, however. Ramsey’s grandparents came from Suffolk and Essex and were agricultural labourers. His father had a smallholding and sold straw and hay. Like many farmworkers, they moved around quite frequently. People had to go where the work was. This may be the reason that as a young man, including when he was a professional footballer, Alf had been given the nickname of Darkie, which apparently referred to the fact that many people thought that he was from a Romani (or gypsy) family. There is no evidence that the Ramseys, or his mother’s family, the Bixbys, were Romani, but nevertheless this may have caused him to be a little more reticent about his background than he might have been. Let’s not pretend that attitudes towards travellers were particularly liberal in the 1950s and 1960s.

There is another reason, however, why Alf Ramsey may have wanted to be a little bit discreet about his family background. He had three brothers, Len, Cyril and Albert. Alf learned to play football with his brothers as a schoolboy in Dagenham. Albert, was a little older than Alf, according to the Leo McKinstry in his biography, was usually known by his nickname “Bruno,” and was a heavy drinker and gambler, who kept greyhounds. “Bruno’s disreputable life would cause Alf some embarrassment,” according to McKinstry.

There’s a further possible reason for Alf’s growing detachment, and this is speculation on my part, but like many professional footballers in the days when they played with those leaden old footballs, he would eventually suffer from Alzheimer’s disease. His mother, Florence had the same illness. Although Alf was only formally diagnosed with the disease in the 1990s, who knows what effect it might have had upon his personality and behaviour?

How the Alf Ramsey of the media stereotype managed to get along with the notoriously bibulous Cobbold family when he went to manage Ipswich Town at Portman Road is uncertain. He was never an unsociable man during his time in football though, and was often photographed at parties. One of Alf’s former players at Ipswich told me that Ramsey always wanted his players to have fun, even though he didn’t want to join them himself. He felt that encouraging his players to go out and have a good time was an important part of building team spirit. Latterly, Ramsey has been criticised for coming down hard on his England players for over-indulging, but it has since transpired that some of them had serious problems with alcohol. It would have been odd if he had turned a blind eye to that as the manager of a national football team.

What’s clear is that Ramsey always wished to ensure that his players were protected from the attentions of the media but also given all the credit for any success that they might have. When Ipswich Town won the Championship in 1962, the football correspondent of The Times wrote: “The players, called from their humble dressing room, did a lap of honour almost embarrassed by all the attention; and an incessant chant rose for the man who had quietly planned this remarkable feat in the background.”

One of Ramsey’s best players at Ipswich Town, Jimmy Leadbetter, said: “He did not want any praise. When people congratulated him, he gave all the credit to the players.”

A story that has often been told but is still endearing is that when all the celebrations of that great Championship victory for Ipswich were over and everyone had gone home, Alf’s chairman John Cobbold found him sitting alone in a completely deserted, dark Portman Road, staring out over the pitch. Without a word, Ramsey handed Cobbold his jacket, walked down onto the pitch and ran a silent lap of honour, alone.

When researching my book almost all the photographs that I could find of Alf showed him smiling. He seems to have been particularly happy when coaching, or with his players. He mistrusted the media and this may not have helped him, particularly after he fell foul of the Football Association and the ridiculous Harold Thompson who appeared to have had a vendetta against him following an incident when Ramsey – once again trying to protect his players – asked him not to smoke a cigar in front of the England team.

To this day, the media continue to use a stereotypical – and I think innacurate – portrayal of Alf Ramsey and that makes it difficult for many people to see beyond the suit and the clipped, artificial accent. He should be judged as a man of his time, the era of National Service, of post-war austerity, of overt and often cruel class distinction. It’s unhelpful to impose the attitudes of our own time. A quiet man from a working-class background, in a society where there was a great deal of snobbery and deference, might be forgiven for taking elocution lessons, or for being a little bit reticent about his origins. The men in blazers at the FA were very powerful people and, indeed, they never quite accepted Alf Ramsey – partly because of his background but also because he did something that someone from his class was not supposed to do. He stood up to them.

In the end, Thompson had his revenge. Ramsey was treated so shabbily by the Football Association that when he died there was no FA representation at his private funeral at St. Mary-le-Tower in Ipswich. According to The Guardian, his widow had “in effect told the Football Association… to go jump in the Thames.” It did not add that Lady Vicki’s  instruction – had it actually been uttered – would have been accompanied by the loud cheers of every Ipswich Town fan in the country. Typically, the BBC – part of the same Establishment as those officials at Lancaster Gate – reported this as Sir Alf’s “last snub” to the FA.

The prevailing view in the 21st century appears to be that Ramsey’s achievements were not so remarkable, that perhaps after all he was only building on the work of his predecessors at Ipswich (Scott Duncan) and England (Walter Winterbottom) but as any Ipswich Town fan will tell any Norwich City supporter: it’s what’s in the trophy cabinet that counts in the end. Bobby Robson who also achieved great things for both Ipswich Town and England, declared that Sir Alf Ramsey was the “greatest British football manager ever.” Who are we to demur?

 

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Seagulls, Hatters & Brand Protection Managers

This is another piece of writing which has been moved from an old website, so it isn’t new.

Amongst many old games that I’ve acquired from various family members over the years is a card game called Goal from around 1959/60 made by the firm Pepys. I like the cards because they remind me of looking through my grandfather’s football pools booklet at the beginning of every season. In the back of the booklet there was always a list of the teams, illustrated by pictures of the strip and details of the club’s history, the ground and so on.

Coming across the cards made me think about how much history is being lost with the modern predilection for re-naming and rebranding everything. Like the constantly changing livery on the nation’s same old clapped-out trains, it’s a very superficial kind of continuing revolution.

Sometimes things juxtapose themselves nicely. Yesterday’s FA Cup 4th round matches provoked a conversation with friends about Portsmouth’s club crest (the sun and crescent on a blue background goes back to Richard I & the Crusades), then on to the history of club and ground names. Shortly afterwards, I heard a match report from the Amex stadium and was struggling to remember what it used to be called. It is, of course, a new stadium, the home of Brighton & Hove Albion. Its full name is the American Express Community Stadium. I love the use of the word “community.” The more football clubs (and politicians) talk about community, it seems to me, the less likely things are decided communally.

Brighton & Hove Albion FC has a long history (from 1901) but, just as it has changed its home, from the Goldstone to the Withdean to the Amex (with ground-sharing in between), some aspects of the club’s history aren’t very – er – historic. The Brighton & Hove Albion badge has gone through several design changes, and the nickname “the Seagulls” only dates from 1977. They were briefly known as “the Dolphins” before that. According to a potted history of B&HA on the website http://www.footballcrests.com/clubs/brighton-hove-albion-fc “the previous crest [to the current one] was introduced in 1998 following a takeover of the south coast club. It is believed that new chairman, Dick Knight, wanted to sweep away all the remnants of the old, disgraced regime and saw an updated crest as a sign to supporters of new beginnings and happier times ahead.”

Incidentally, the footballcrests.com site lists the clubs which refused them permission to reproduce the club badge. http://www.footballcrests.com/noper.php

I thought the list would include the Arsenals and the Manchester Uniteds, keen to protect their intellectual property, but Barnet FC and Belper Town came as something as a surprise. The club badge has become the club “logo” and its ownership is no longer with the supporters.

There is a great deal of information available online about the history of football clubs, so here are some links:

Badges/crests.

As this article from the Guardian website points out, clubs are fast modernising their club crests and chucking out their history: http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/football-league-blog/2010/sep/06/football-league-new-crests

Here are links to 3 of the clubs mentioned in that article:

The Chelsea badge has an interesting history: http://www.chelseafc.com/page/HistoryDetail/0,,10268~1328582,00.html

I was especially impressed by the quotation from Chief Executive Peter Kenyon (formerly of Manchester United): “We are incredibly proud of Chelsea’s heritage. The design of this new badge is based on the one from the 1950s and it was a conscious decision to do this… As we approach our centenary year, and the club embarks on a new and very exciting era, it is appropriate that we have a new identity that reflects our tradition and can represent us for the next 100 years.”

Leeds United. http://www.wafll.com/leeds-united-badges.html

Oxford United FC http://www.oxkits.co.uk/club_badges.htm

Grounds.

Lots of information is available on this fascinating website: http://www.oldgrounds.co.uk/

Nicknames.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_football_club_nicknames_in_the_United_Kingdom

Not everyone is interested in such things and I imagine most people look at the lamb on Preston North End’s badge or the swan on Wycombe Wanderers’ crest without a flicker of interest. Nor do they wonder why Wycombe Wanderers are known as the Chairboys or Luton, the Hatters. Yet there is some interest because I often see fans’ forum posts by people asking what the Hotspur in Tottenham Hotspur means, or about the origins of the nickname “Posh” for Peterborough United. Posh has been used by the football club or its fans, since the 1920s, but in 2002 Victoria Beckham tried to stop the club from using it, by lodging a counter-claim with the Patents Office. PUFC said that they would fight the claim fiercely in the courts. They did, and they won – which is pleasing, but the club’s reason for doing so was not the defence of the club’s traditions but as the then chief executive Geoff Davey warned, the club faced serious financial implications if they were prevented from using the ‘Posh’ name on merchandising.

In 2004, the then Chairman of the Football League, former Tory minister Brian Mawhinney, defending the rebranding of the second division as the Coca-Cola Championship, said:  “We have reclaimed our history. … The championship is a historic term dating back to 1888.” Perhaps, but history had less to do with it than sponsorship, hence the involvement of a soft drinks’ company.

Sponsorship, rebranding, the constant need for clubs to acquire more money, just to be able to compete, or even exist, are eroding the history of clubs and their supporters. Many clubs employ a Brand Protection Manager. In an enlightening interview with CPA Global, intellectual property lawyers, Ronald Crawford, an American who became BPM for Arsenal in 1997, explained how he misunderstood what tradition meant to the fans: “Not growing up in the UK, I didn’t appreciate quite how passionate football fans are about what we as management do with the Arsenal assets. … Many fans have long-standing loyalties to the club that have been passed down from generation to generation. They feel as if it belongs to them, as indeed it does. That means they can also be sensitive about what we do – and how we go about it…. I didn’t appreciate the history of the name or its importance to our fans. … From an IP perspective, it made absolute sense to register it as a trademark, so that the club could protect it. But the fans felt differently. …  If the club chooses to change the colour of its shirt or the style of its team kit, then it will be discussed and debated on the fans’ forums… so we need to keep in mind the different stakeholders.”

Tradition is an important part of football clubs. The clubs as businesses know it. That’s why they’re selling it – or a version of it – back to us.

Three Football Clubs and a Funeral

I wrote this in January 2012 for another site but I’m transferring everything to one place so apologies to anyone who’s already read it.

My friend and brother-in-law died suddenly from a brain haemorrhage just over a year ago. I could write an entirely different piece about him because he was a very interesting man who made the world a better place, not least because he did great work in opening access to higher education up to people from disadvantaged backgrounds. I’ve been thinking a great deal, though, about a small aspect of his life to do with his love of football.

Keith was an Ipswich Town fan for decades. Born in West Suffolk, he moved to a village just outside Ipswich when he was a small boy. He was lucky, in that he was a Town supporter during the club’s glory days and saw the F.A. Cup Final victory over Arsenal in 1978 and the home leg of the UEFA Cup Final win over AZ Alkmaar in 1981. Work took him to live in Devon though, and although he was a Town fan until the end, he became disenchanted with what was happening to football with the advent of the Premier League, like many of us. He started to go to watch his local club, Exeter City and after a while, he and his mate Andy joined the Exeter City Supporters’ Trust.

I think he enjoyed watching the football at St. James’ Park, he certainly enjoyed the lack of commercialism and he was definitely attracted to the fact that the Supporters’ Trust own the club. He also had the very great pleasure of watching the last days of Marcus Stewart as a professional footballer.

Here’s a link to the Grecians’ Supporters’ Trust website: http://www.ecfcst.org.uk/constitution/ which explains the constitution and how they own the club.

When Keith died, he had a non-religious funeral in Exeter and one of the people who spoke was his fellow Supporters’ Trust member, Andy. Andy was from Norwich and as much of a life-long supporter of City as Keith had been a Town fan. He spoke very movingly about his friendship with Keith, their heated discussions about their teams in the pub, their shared love of the game and their equally shared hatred of the way that football seemed to be heading.

Many supporters of Ipswich Town and Norwich City won’t be interested in the Exeter City way of doing things. It probably isn’t exactly the right model for either club to adopt. City’s success probably means there isn’t much appetite for change at Carrow Road and the prospect of eventual success (looking increasingly delusional, in my humble opinion) for Ipswich Town probably also means few ITFC supporters would be interested either. It would, for a start, mean we’d have to forget the idea of playing with the big boys for a long time to come.

The last time I went to Portman Road with Keith, we beat Bristol City 6-0. He left the ground beaming. None of us knew that it would be his last visit there. I wish that he was still here for lots of reasons. He’d still be a Town fan but a very disgruntled one. And he’d still be a member of Exeter City Supporters’ Trust.

“Ipswich for the Cup, but first a word about the ladies…”

I am never one to refuse the chance of making a gratuitous reference to my beloved Ipswich Town, but this is about the history of women’s football in England generally, so the Ipswich bit – having occurred in the 1950s – will have to wait until the end.

Like most people, I don’t know much about women’s football, although I watch some international matches and Arsenal Ladies beating whoever-it-is in the FA Cup Final every year. In 2007, however, I saw a fascinating BBC documentary about  the history of women’s football. Focusing on the famous Dick Kerr’s Ladies team, it showed rare, flickering black-and-white images of women’s football in the early part of the 20th century. I had known nothing about this: proper football matches played between proper teams. Some of the matches had been watched by massive crowds. On Boxing Day 1920, Dick Kerr’s Ladies beat St. Helen’s Ladies 4-0. The attendance was 53,000.

That date, 1920, is significant. Only a year later the FA decided to ban women from playing football on Football League grounds. “The game,” they pronounced was “quite unsuitable for females and ought not to be encouraged.” The decline in the women’s game was dramatic and it never fully recovered, although it has been revived in the 21st century, thanks to interest in the United States and other parts of the world.

In Britain, people still talk of women’s football as something that is novel and a little bit odd. However, references to women playing football appear to go back a long way. Sir Philip Sidney mentions women playing footie in one of his poems, A Dialogue Between Two Shepherds (c.1580), and, yes, girls, it looks as if they tucked their skirts into their knickers back in Tudor times too:

“A tyme there is for all, my mother often sayes,

When she, with skirts tuckt very hy, with girles at football playes.”

In 1894, the Hampshire Telegraph & Sussex Chronicle heralded the developments in the women’s  game: “Female football teams will shortly contest in public. Women played football in this country centuries ago. Mr. Pepys complains of the nuisance in the Strand, when milkmaids kicked the ball about on May-day, as was their immemorial privilege [my italics].” Sadly the newspaper ruins everything by adding the inevitable comment: “It was not an edifying practice even then.”

The 1880s and 1890s saw some interest in women’s football, but newspaper reports were generally negative describing matches between teams made up of the “softer sex” and indulging in the usual rhetoric about scratching and unnatural aggression. Even attendance at football matches played by men was under scrutiny, for example, this writer in the Derby Mercury, 15th March 1893, believed: “”Women undoubtedly lose their influence over and attraction for men when they dispossess themselves of their womanly attributes; and girls who constantly attend football matches, and think nothing of seeing their own and other people’s brothers and cousins maimed, most assuredly do so.”

Women’s football, despite being popular as a spectator sport, came in for criticism in the press right from the start. The organised women’s game began in 1895 with a North vs. South match. The North, predictably, won 7-1. The usually liberal Ipswich Journal writing about the match stated that “it seems as if we have reached the climax of fin de siècle enormities when we read of the formation of a British Ladies’ Football Club…” and it was patronisingly described in the Times (25th March 1895):

“A match, under Association rules, between teams of ladies was played at Nightingale-lane, Hornsey,  on Saturday… Great curiosity was aroused and the ground was thronged by 7,000 people. The football was of a very harmless nature, and its novelty soon grew irksome to many of the spectators.”

The same newspaper continued in the same vein in May 1920 for its report on the England vs France women’s international, introducing (for the times, at least) a sexual frisson with a rather fanciful preamble about a boy (a young Sepp Blatter, perhaps) spying on some schoolgirls playing football in a cathedral close (!):

“The fortunate youth who penetrated these mysteries was all unconscious of attending the birth of the new woman  – he was much too intent on the spectacle. Was he not enjoying one of the few privileges of which Woman does not apparently propose to deprive his sex  – that of watching her insist on doing what a Man does better?”

The Times does go on to briefly describe the actual international match at Stamford Bridge, which France won 2-0. The writer is even good enough to admit that the players “exhibited enough skill to disappoint those who had come to laugh,” but is more enthused by the French women’s short light blue jumpers.

So why did the FA ban women in 1921? My guess it was part of a wider move to put women back in the home after the First World War. In the same year, Bath City Ladies had played in a match in Manchester to raise money for ex-servicemen, but ex-servicemen needed jobs and women were required to return to more traditional roles. It was time for society to re-invent what was considered to be appropriate behaviour for a woman. In 2008, the FA apologised for the ban and the statement that football was “unsuitable” for women.

So, to go back to the title of this piece. It’s taken from an article written by Dingle Foot, former MP for Ipswich, and published in the Times in 1978. He was writing about his memories of Sir Alf Ramsay’s great team, of course, but was also looking forward to the FA Cup Final that Ipswich Town were about to play – and win – against Arsenal. In the article, he recalled a revival of the women’s game in Suffolk when he was the local MP:

“… the rise of Ipswich did not end there. The girls began to play. They attracted immense attention. At their first match they refused to obey the referee as they played for another ladies team from rural Suffolk.” They appealed to their Member of Parliament. All he could come up with was a Kiplingesque poem:

It’s goodbye to Jacky Milburn and salute the rising sun

McGarry’s come to put the Town back in Division One

But compared with Ipswich Ladies even Portman Road must fail

For the female of the species is more deadly than the male.

The girls have sacked their manager for all the world to see

‘Twas he who sinned against the light: he backed the referee

No ode will now be written to Mr. Nightingale

For the female of the species is much rougher than the male.

So here by Orwell’s flowing tide Britannia’s flag unfurls

To show in Wolsey’s ancient town that girls will still be girls

Down with the ref, up with the chicks, oh great Minerva, hail

The Ipswich ladies footballers submit to no mere male.

Two days after this poem appeared in the local paper, Dingle Foot received a letter from the captain of the Ipswich ladies’ team assuring him of their full support in the election. He held his seat. “No doubt,” he wrote, “this was due to the Ipswich ladies. In the end the girls always win.”